Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Lecture Notes (42); Assignments. Module Name, Download, Description, Download Size. Introduction, Introduction to Real Time Embedded Systems Part I , PDF, kb Introduction, Embedded Systems Components Part II, PDF, kb. Embedded System Study Materials, Important Questions List, Embedded System Syllabus, Embedded System Lecture Notes can be download in Pdf format.

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Embedded Systems Design. LECTURE NOTES. SYLLABUS: Unit-I. Introduction to Embedded Systems: Definition of Embedded System, Embedded Systems Vs. Embedded Systems Notes - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. 67 iv. Lee & Seshia, Introduction to Embedded Systems, version least the present version is available free in the form of PDF file designed specifically for on-line reading. Notes for Instructors. At Berkeley, we use this.

Q Given an example of a specification on a digital still camera, giving both type of specification and any required values. Q Briefly describe the distinction between specification and architecture. The distinction between specification and architecture is that the specification is a detailed description of how a system behaves.

While in many systems a specification may lead directly to one type of architecture, ideally this is not the case. Q At what stage of the design methodology would we determine what type of CPU to use 8-bit vs. We would determine what type of CPU we would use in the architecture design stage of the design methodology Q At what stage of the design methodology would we choose a programming language? We would choose a high-level programming language in the architecture design stage of the design methodology.

Q Should an embedded computing system include software designed in more than one programming language? Many embedded systems will have a small keypad you press one key to give a specific command.

A keypad may be used to input only the digits. Many embedded systems used in process control do not have any input device for user interaction; they take inputs from sensors or transducers and produce electrical signals that are in turn fed to other systems.

Some embedded systems will have a few Light Emitting Diodes LEDs to indicate the health status of the system modules, or for visual indication alarms.

A small Liquid crystal display LCD may also be used to display some important parameters. This circuitry interacts with the processor to carry out the necessary work. The entire hardware has to be given power supply either through the volts main supply or through a battery. The hardware has to be designed in such a way that the power consumption is minimized.

Specialities of an Embedded System As compared to desktop computers, workstations or mainframes, embedded systems have many specialities.

Developers need to keep these specialities in mind while designing embedded systems. They should continue to work of thousands of hours without break. Many embedded systems used in industrial control are inaccessible. They are hidden in some other large sized equipment, hence there will not be a reset button on such systems. So, the design of the embedded system should be such that in case the system has to be reset, the reset should be done automatically. This special module is known as watchdog timer.

Besides, they should be able to withstand bump and vibrations. Hence very severe environmental specifications have to be met by such systems. The ability to work reliably in extreme environmental conditions is known as ruggedness. Not only the military equipment, even the consumer appliances such as the mobile phone need to be very rugged.

Many people keep dropping their mobile phone on the floor, but still it works because it is very rugged. For instance, in a process control system, a constraint can be : if the temperature exceeds 40 degrees, open a valve within 10 milliseconds. The system must meet such dead lines. If the deadlines are missed, it may result in a catastrophe. You can imagine the damage that can be done if such deadlines are not met in a safety system of a nuclear plant.

To reduce the battery drain and avoid frequent recharging of the battery, the power consumption of the embedded system has to be very low. To reduce power consumption such hardware components should be used that consume less power.

Besides, emphasis should be on reducing the components count of the hardware. Reducing the component count apart from reducing the power consumption also increases the reliability of the system. However, for embedded systems used in consumer electronics or office automation, the cost is of utmost importance.

Suppose you designed a toy in which the electronics will cost 20 dollars. By a careful analysis of the design, if you can find a way to reduce the cost to 19 dollars, it will be a great job. When you sell 10 million toys, the cost reduction is 10 million dollars. Wo do not like a mobile phone that has to be carried on our backs. The size and the weight are important parameters in embedded systems used in aircraft, spacecraft, missiles etc.

To reduce the size and the weight, again the hardware engineers have to design their boards by reducing the component count to the maximum possible extent. Some embedded systems do not have any user interface at all. They take electrical signals as input and produce electrical signals as output. In many embedded systems, the input is through a small function keypad or a set of buttons. So, once the software is transferred to the embedded system, the same software will run throughout its life.

However, in some cases, it may be necessary to upgrade the software. At the PCO, an embedded system is used which displays the amount to be paid by a telephone user. The amount is calculated by the firmware, based on the calling number and the duration of the call.

From time to time, the telecom operator will change the algorithm for the calculation of the bill amount. So, every time there is a tariff change, the PCO operator has to replace the program stored in the memory of the embedded system with new program. This is very awkward, considering that a memory chip will have to be replaced in thousands of PCOs. Nowadays, software upgradation is done by downloading the software onto the embedded system through a network connection.

These building blocks are explained as follows. Fig 1. As we know that, a microcontroller has memory and other peripherals on the chip itself, hence, it is the best choice for small embedded systems. On the other hand, a microprocessor is more powerful but requires a large number of external components.

The internal architecture of processor is shown in the Fig. Internal Architecture of a Processor The CPU consists of Arithmetic Logic Unit ALU which performs arithmetic and logic operations such as add, multiply, subtract, etc General purpose registers constitute the processors internal memory.

The number of registers varies from processor to processor. Registers contain the current data and operands that are being manipulated by the processor. When a processor is referred to as of 8-bits, 16bits etc, it refers to the width of the registers. Control unit that fetches the instructions from memory, decodes them and executes them. A control unit consists of Instruction pointer that points to the next instruction to be executed.

Instruction pointer is also called program counter. Stack pointer that points to the stack in the memory. In the external memory, the processor implements a stack. When required, the contents of registers are transferred to this stack.

The processor keeps track of the next free location in the stack through stack pointer. Instruction decoder that decodes the instructions. Memory address register and Memory data register. The program memory stores the firmware permanently whereas data memory contents are erased when power is switched off. Both program memory and data memory can be internal to the processor as in the case of microcontroller or it can be external memory. In a micro-controller, both program memory and data memory are on chip.

However, if the capacity of the internal memory is not sufficient, you can use external memory chips to increase the memory capacity. RAM is a read-write chip as you can perform both read and write operations on it. SRAM loses its contents the moment power is switched off to the chip. DRAM retains its contents for a fraction of a second even if power is supplied continuously to the chip.

To keep its contents intact, DRAM has to be refreshed periodically. A DRAM controller is used to carry out this operation.

SRAM is faster and consumes less power. The main attraction of DRAM is that it is very cheap and hence it is used when a high capacity RAM is required but the chip has to be of low cost. DRAM is used in handheld computers.

Some ROMs are fused in the factory, i. A variety of ROMs are available with different capabilities. When your firmware is ready, put it on the PROM and then mount the device on your embedded system.

Characteristics of an Embedded System

So, even if power is switched off, the battery will ensure that the contents are not erased. These low cost chips are characterized by their fast read quality. The memory is divided into sectors or blocks. Typical sector size is bytes to 16 KB. Each sector is an erasable unit. When erased, the bits in that sector are set to 1.

As it is electrically erasable, contents of the flash memory can be updated in the embedded system. Flash memory is nowadays extensively used in embedded systems for storing the firmware.

Clock Circuitry The processor has to be given the clock input to one of the pins. To generate the clock signal, a crystal and oscillator are required. For some processors, the oscillator circuitry is inbuilt, only external crystal has to be added to generate the clock signal. Real time clock RTC keeps track of the date and time. All processor events are related to the clock. The higher the clock frequency, the higher the speed of the processor.

However, different processors cannot be compared based on clock speed alone. One processor may take one clock cycle for executing an instruction, whereas another processor may take 16 clock cycles to execute the same instruction.

Due to some software or hardware error, a need may arise to reset the processor.

Embedded and Real Time Systems Notes pdf – ERTS notes pdf file

The watchdog timer does the resetting. A timer is set to a large value and it is decremented slowly. If the timer value reaches zero, the 14 processor is reset through a reset signal. If everything is going on fine, intermittently, the timer value is again set to the large value.

If a reset button is provided in an embedded system, on pressing the button, a reset signal is sent to the processor. Alternatively, the processor sends a periodic signal to the reset circuit indicating that it is healthy. If the reset circuitry does not receive this signal, then the processor is reset. The processor performs this identification using a signal called chip select CS.

Embedded System Lecture Notes and Presentations

The chip select signal is available to all the peripherals connected to the bus. This is achieved through sensors and transducers. Temperature sensors convert the temperature into an equivalent electrical voltage.

The output of the sensor is a signal whose voltage level is proportional to the temperature. Measurement of temperatures in air conditioners, boilers, coffins etc is done through this sensor. Light sensors convert the light intensity into an equivalent electrical voltage. The output of the sensor, the voltage level, is proportional to the light incident on the sensor.

The light is sensed through a photodiode, and an in-built amplifier amplifies the voltage level. Accelerometer converts the acceleration into voltage. The voltage is proportional to the acceleration of a vehicle.

Pressure sensors convert the pressure level to voltage level. Pressure sensors are used in blood pressure equipment, and to measure altitude of aircraft, ocean depth etc.

MPXA A is an example. Microphone and speakers : Microphone converts the acoustic energy into a voltage signal. When you speak into a microphone, the output of the microphone is an electrical signal Some important sensors and 15 with continuously varying amplitude. The speakers convert the electrical signal back into acoustic waves. Video camera and monitor : The real life image or scenery is converted into electrical signal using a video camera.

The video camera output is a continuously varying electrical signal. The electrical signal is converted back to the image on a monitor.

Their amplitude continuously varies with time. However, the computing devices are digital. They can process only digital data. Hence, we need to convert the analog signals into digital data. The analog signals produced by sensors and transducers have one important characteristic i. The bandwidth of a signal is the highest significant frequency component present in the signal. For instance, voice signals have a bandwidth of 4 KHz, i. The analog signal can be converted into digital format in two stages: sampling and quantization.

In sampling, the amplitude levels of the signal are measured at regular intervals. In quantization, the sampled value is converted into a number. Nyquist theorem provides the number of samples required to correctly represent an analog signal. If the bandwidth of a signal is B Hz , the number of samples required per second called the sampling rate should be at least 2B.

So, for voice signals with a bandwidth of 4 KHz, the minimum sampling rate is samples per second. Other Useful Links. Your Comments About This Post.

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Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun April 8. April 7.The operating system is optional. Hence, to represent each sample value, 8 bits are required. Join with us. Bharathi Dhasan. The baud unit denotes symbols per second. The monitoring can be done using a web browser such as the Internet Explorer.

Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG. From small amounts of processing in items like electronic timers, to far more complicated embedded systems like gaming consoles and even major factory and other industrial systems.