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AC: In evolutionary terms, the rainbowfishes are actually a relatively young family, and this means that they hybridise easily.
Feature eds. PFK: In your experience, which are the easiest, and which are the hardest rainbows to spawn? AC: All rainbowfish and blue-eyes are easily spawned but they can present problems when raising the fry.
Of the 35 species I ve bred I d say the easiest has been the Painted rainbow, Melanotaenia picta. The hardest would have to be the Threadfin rainbow, Iriatherina werneri. PFK: You can proudly claim to be the first person to spawn the Trachyelyopteris insignis woodcat! How long has it taken?
AC: I have been trying for two years. The fish had actually spawned many times but I had never managed to hatch them. It s an ongoing project and one that has come as part of a massive learning curve for myself as a breeder. Then last week I finally managed to hatch them! Throughout the whole period I ve been trying, I ve experimented with changes to the diet, to temperature and so on I don t think there s anything left that I haven t tried!
But then, this is what I enjoy so much about breeding fish. It s the ups and the downs, the successes and the failures.
I love it all. How was my latest attempt successful? I just knew something was different when both the females released their eggs simultaneously. PFK: How did you come across the rasbora Trigonostigma somphongsi, famously one of the hardest fish to find in the hobby? AC: Thankfully, a few dedicated hobbyists are now keeping and breeding this species and I was lucky to pick up a group of young fish last year on one of my many trips to the north west of England.
My friend Colin Dunlop who is local to me is also breeding them. Colin got his via our mutual friend Pete Cottle and we will soon be swapping the offspring from our spawns, to help the bloodline his are from a different gene pool to mine, which will help us avoid inbreeding. PFK: What happens to the young rainbowfish you raise? On the back of that, young fish are regularly sold and swapped. We also trade and swap egg mops, and I have successfully sent shipments of eggs all over the world.
The rainbowfish scene has seen a fantastic surge in popularity since the introduction of social media. PFK: What water source do you use? AC: I have a connection running from an outside tap supply to my fish house.
All the water runs through an HMA filter Feature eds. PFK: Do you use anything to alter the water chemistry? AC: Some individual tank filters contain oyster shell to help buffer and stabilise the ph.
Some other tanks are littered with leaf litter and alder cones to make conditions more acidic. For some extremely low ph tanks reverse osmosis water is used. PFK: How do you keep everything filtered? AC: My tanks are all equipped with air 25 26 Dawkinsia exclamatio. My larger tanks have separate external canister filtration.
PFK: What about heating? AC: The whole room is space heated, with some individual tanks set to specific temperatures by using separate heaters, where required. PFK: What s your typical daily routine? AC: Lights go on at 6. At 7am they get their first feed. At 5pm they get their second feed, and at 7pm I start on tank maintenance in my fry tanks, sort out any arising issues, move breeding fish about if required, check breeding mops for eggs, and feed cultured foods like infusoria.
At 8pm they get their third feed, for fry only. Then at 9. Saturday is my water change day. I make a start at 8am, and I m usually done by about 2pm. There s actually a reason I carry out my water changes on a Saturday. Most of the tanks get refilled with cold water, and I have my space heaters on full blast all day because of that. Scottish Gas offers a deal where you get free electricity on a weekend day from 8am till 5pm, so it does actually save me a few bob.
Weekend water changes save Alex s. PFK: Which types of food do you favour? AC: Quite a range. Golden Pearl fry food 5 50 micron size, infusoria, decapsulated brineshrimp eggs, Microworm, Grindalworm, whiteworm, brineshrimp flakes, Sera flora flake, and Naturekind frozen food from CE Fish Essentials. PFK: What fish has eluded you the most to either keep or breed? AC: I would love to obtain some Tatia sp. Ninja and attempt to breed them. PFK: Do you ever show your fish? AC: Yes.
I m a strong supporter of the club scene. I wouldn t say I m a committed shower but I have been pretty successful, with many Best in Shows. PFK: What would be your dream aquarium? AC: A tank full of Melanotaenia sneideri. PFK: Do you have any particular medications you swear by?
AC: I try to avoid using chemicals. UV sterilisation is my preferred method of controlling unwanted pathogens. PFK: What would be your advice for someone looking at getting into breeding? AC: Join your local fishkeeping club.
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O Want to know more about the UK rainbowfish scene? Visit rainbowfishuk. STEP 1 Fish selection O Examine your selected fish carefully for any signs of parasites and other pathogens, as the reproductive capacity of any sick or burdened fish will be substantially reduced. O Choose fish that are strong and vigorous swimming well and eating well. O Make sure they show good, and where applicable, intense colouration avoid pale fish. O Choose fish with good body shapes, free of deformities.
Is it a good representative of the species? If not, don t breed it. Be vigilant for problems like spinal curvature, fin kinks, incomplete gill covers, and jaw structure. The fish you re using to breed from should be, in most cases, young but sexually mature adults. If you breed fish that are too young, they will have limited fertility and are more prone to cannibalism of eggs and young. Conversely, a fish that is too old will suffer from lowered productivity, producing smaller yields.
For larger rainbowfish like Melanotaenia, Glossolepis or Chilatherina, use a tank of 60 x 30 x 30cm. For the smaller Blue eyes Pseudomugil use a tank of 30 x 30 x 30cm. O Set the tank up without substrate, at a temperature of C. Use handfuls of Java moss or spawning mops these will collect the eggs for extraction. O Subdue the lighting and add a mature, sponge filter air driven, for example.
Always try to use a well matured tank and sponge filter for your project if they re mature they ll carry heaps of micro fauna. Add a few drops of Liquifry occasionally to boost this. O Ensure a tight fitting cover as the spawning process can become quite boisterous. Don t overfeed, however. Providing optimal water quality throughout this period is essential Males don t generally need much conditioning. After the week is up, introduce your male in the evening and turn the lights off.
At this point, a fresh, cold water change can be beneficial. O Ensure that the mops and moss are in place for any non-receptive females they ll be harassed otherwise. With rainbowfish, spawning will normally take place in the morning.
O Remove the adult fish from the breeding tank after three days. For rainbowfish, it is usually 6 8 days; blue eyes can be far longer, from 9 21 days pending species. O Maintain a water temperature of C. If the eggs have been placed in a hatching tray, then it is beneficial to add slight aeration from an airstone.
Unfertilised eggs can be identified and removed by placing all eggs in a small dish containing a Methylene blue solution, before transferral to a hatching tank. Any unfertilised eggs will be stained blue at this point. If picking eggs from a mop by hand, wash your hands with fresh clean water to avoid the transfer of any skin acids, nicotine, soap and detergents. Do the same again before working on any other eggs to avoid contamination. O Place blue-eye eggs that have passed their hatching date in a small test tube and then place in your pocket for 1 2 hours.
This movement will help them to hatch out. O Remove any eggs that appear opaque throughout the process. Note that unfertilised eggs will normally burst easily if placed between thumb and forefinger. Always be careful when picking eggs from mops or moss as they have a little adhesive thread that is used for naturally attaching them to plants.
STEP 5 Raising fry Both rainbowfish and blue-eye fry are between 3 5mm and fairly well developed when they hatch. Though the fry do have a yolk sack, it is quickly absorbed within 6 12 hours. Once absorbed, the fry will congregate on the surface and you should start feeding. For the first 5 7 days, feed infusoria and dusty, finely powdered foods. After another 5 7 days, start introducing live foods such as Microworms.
Meanwhile, continue with some dust food alongside it for a further seven days. Feed your fry a minimum of three times per day. For the first few weeks, this is vital. As your fry develop you should vary their diet. It s tempting to feed only worms, but you should be weaning them on to a staple diet with the introduction of prepared foods. To raise most rainbowfish species in any substantial numbers, a tank of around x 45 x 45cm is ideal.
However, blue-eyes can be raised to around one month of age and introduced into their adult tank. Glossolepis wanamensis is now considered critically endangered in the wild, so it s little surprise that Alex is so keen to breed them. Scientific name: Glossolepis wanamensis. Habitat: Shallow, clear lake water with heavy vegetation. Size: To 10cm males.
Tank size: 90 x 30cm footprint upwards. Water requirements: Alkaline, slightly hard water: pH, hardness H. Temperament: Peaceful but skittish. Feeding: Eats most dry, frozen and live foods. Availability and price: Captive bred specimens currently available at Sweet Knowle Aquatics for Not common. At a glance, it looks like a scale model of a Harlequin rasbora with a lesser pork chop black marking. Close up, it has a texture and charm all of its own. Hopefully it ll one day be reintroduced back into the wild, though it s still not entirely certain where wild for them is.
Scientific name: Trigonostigma somphongsi. Origin: Likely Western Thailand. Habitat: Uncertain, but other Trigonostigma live in slow flowing, usually stained, acidic water. Size: To 3cm. Tank size: 60 x 30cm footprint and upwards. Water requirements: Soft, acidic water: pH, hardness 1 8 H. Temperament: Peaceful but nervous. Feeding: Does best on small live foods and powdered specialist diets. Availability and price: Rare, not offered in the majority of stores. You ll need to join clubs and build contacts to source them.
Price likely to be negotiated on request. Alex is the first person to successfully spawn them in captivity, and by all accounts it s a rough affair with the male grabbing the female between his dorsal fin and hardened whiskers he really is supposed to look like that in a breeding embrace.
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He even growls at her while doing so. Scientific name: Trachelyopterus insignis. Origin: Rio Magdalena, Colombia. Habitat: Sandy, muddy rivers with heaps of fallen wood and leaf litter. Size: To 20cm. Tank size: Adults require a x 30cm footprint upwards. Water requirements: Soft, acidic to neutral water: pH, hardness 4 16 H. Temperament: Will eat small fish, otherwise a little territorial. Feeding: Plenty of meaty foods Alex uses crickets gut-loaded with flake foods.
Availability and price: Rare, make occasional appearances in South American specialist stores, starting around 15 for young fish. Each pack has the product name printed on the front and on the back you will find the EAN barcode for fast, efficient in-store handling. Everything is packed in the Netherlands to ensure fresh, top quality products the whole year round.
Most of these items are available in BULK too. Available potted and bunched. Also a range of mosses, plants on bogwood and on coconut! Available in ml, ml and ml pots. Award winning gram blisters in 35 different flavours. Distributor of Easy-Life products. Famous for EasyCarbo and ProFito and more plant fertilisers and water treatments. Graeme Houston I have five tetras in my tank. They were shoaling for a few days when I put them in, now they seem to just hang about on their own or in twos, what do you think could be the problem?
Paddy Flint What tetras are they? Rule of thumb is more is more with Tetra. I have 30 Rummynose tetras and they shoal beautifully. Jared Cave They ve chilled out and become used to your tank and so don t need to shoal.
It s not really a problem. George GIllesple Rummy-nose tetras are the best shoaling fish. Ben Cook Fish shoal for protection Debbie James Like the others have said, they have just settled in. Fcmf Fish This isn t a problem it s a good sign that they feel safe and don t need to shoal because of potential predators.
Some species of fish are more likely to shoal than others, Rummy-noses being the most likely of the tetras. You may find that you ll see some chasing as they establish their place in their hierarchy but otherwise they generally spend their time on their own, dispersed in the tank.
Graeme Houston Cheers guys. A leafy history resurfaced I read your recent article on botanicals and thought I would drop you a line. We used to use leaves back in the 60s, but it did not become very popular then this was before power filters. We used oak, beech and willow, and back then you could download blackwater tonic which would imitate the conditions of the Rio Negro, the leaves would help make acidic conditions required for some wild fish.
I have Magnolia, Camellia and Variegated Elaeagnus growing in my garden, all of which would provide acidic conditions if well dried before boiling and used in a tank. Remember that tea is a type of Camellia so many dried leaves will give a dark colour. Lots of other leaves can be used. I have Laurel which gives a rich yellow colour and Bay laurel used in cooking which dries green. The best way is to cut off a branch, hang it upside down in the sun and allow it to dry all nitrogen needs to be lost from the leaf before use, as this will make them last longer.
If there is any suspicion of a toxin in the leaf, an old test was to soak the cleaned leaf in water for a while and then add some live Daphnia, but ensure the water is similar to what the Daphnia are already swimming in or they die from the sudden change.
I used to breed millions of Daphnia in the garden and lab all you need is a tank or paddling pool, throw in some food, a little garden lime not quick lime and add a starter culture bag from a fish shop.
The small items you refer to are simply seed pods or shells, a coconut is simply a large seed, all types of nuts can be used not peanuts as they are actually beans. If you don t like the result of a nutcracker you can use a hacksaw or dremel to create the shape you want. Chestnut shells when wet can be cut with scissors and give a rich brown colour.
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Aqualisa Aquatique Spares. Aqualisa Aquamixa Shower Mixer Spares. Aqualisa Axis Thermo Shower Spares. Aqualisa Showers Showering Screwfix. They are constantly trying to innovate and listen to what people want from a shower to improve the showering experience. Our Aqualisa showers range includes showers that are suitable for your home no matter the type of pressure or system you have.
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There are also specific cartridges such as, the Aquastream thermostatic and manual cartridges, the Opto thermostatic, combi and gravity cartridges and the Opto manual and thermostatic body assemblies. Otolaryng Clin N Am ; 21 4 : — Sep , San Diego.
Hoffman LA. Timing of tracheostomy: What is the best approach? Resp Care ; — Johnson JT. Alternatives to tracheotomy. American College of Surgeons, Chicago, ; 54—55, 69— Mechanical upper airway obstruction. Elective tracheostomy for major head and neck surgery. These five categories are not strictly separate indications as there is substantial overlap between them.
Therefore a patient may fall into more than one category and require a tracheostomy for a whole host of reasons. Malignancy Advanced tumours of larynx, tongue, pharynx or upper trachea presenting with stridor. Trauma Gunshot and knife wounds to the neck, inhalation of steam or smoke, swallowing of corrosive fluid.
Vocal cord paralysis Post-op complication of thyroidectomy, cardiac or oesophageal surgery, bulbar palsy. Foreign body Swallowed or inhaled object lodged in upper airway causing stridor. A cuffed tube will prevent inhalation of fluids and the tube allows easy access to the trachea and the bronchi for suction.
Guillain—Barre syndrome , motor neurone disease, bulbar poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, tetanus, brain-stem stroke and bulbar palsy].
Coma in any situation where the Glascow Coma Scale score is less than 8, the patient is at risk of aspiration as the protective reflexes are lost. That includes head injury, overdose, poisoning, stroke, and brain tumour.
Trauma severe facial fractures, may result in the aspiration of blood from the upper airways. It also results in easy access to the respiratory tree for suctioning and removal of bronchial secretions. Neurological diseases multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease. Severe chest injury flail chest. This group also includes those patients on intensive care who have been intubated via the naso- or orotracheal route for a prolonged period.
The precise length of time that a patient can be safely intubated in this manner is still the subject of some debate, but there is a direct relationship between the duration of intubation, and the incidence and severity of laryngeal complications discussed in the previous chapters.
The risk of complications greatly increases after intubation for more than 48 h. As a general rule though, endotracheal intubation is the treatment of choice and can be continued for 7—10 days with minimal risk. If it appears that assisted ventilation will be required for longer than 14 days, an elective tracheostomy should be performed. No patient should be intubated for longer than three weeks however, as the incidence of laryngeal stenosis becomes unacceptably high. The first thing to do, if the patient is conscious, is to speak to the patient about what has been proposed.
The procedure should be explained and the benefits and risks laid out for them. It is important to explain that they will not be able to speak initially but will be able to write on a pad, which will be provided for them. Once they no longer require mechanical ventilation then the tube can be changed to a fenestrated one or a speaking valve can be used.
If it is truly an elective procedure, as part of a larger operation, then an introduction to someone with a tracheostomy should be considered so that they can speak to them about it and see for themselves what it entails. Once they have been fully informed then they can sign the appropriate consent form. Remember that in the UK, no adult can consent another adult for surgery.
A separate consent form is available for the surgeon and intensivist to sign in this case Form 4. The patients clotting should be checked and any anti-coagulants stopped for the time of the procedure. This will enable one to anticipate difficulties when performing the surgery.
For example, in relation to an enlarged thyroid gland or with limited neck extension, making it difficult to gain access to the trachea. Experienced surgeons may find some of the tips useful.
A good assistant is vital when performing the tracheostomy as good retraction of structures enables the operation to proceed more smoothly with potentially less intra-operative complications. The patient should be positioned on the operating table with the neck extended. This results in extension of the neck and exposes more of the trachea as it is brought up out of the chest. The head should be supported in a head ring and the patient should be lying squarely on the table.
If not the surgeon is likely to stray to one or other side of the trachea with potentially disastrous consequences. Care must also be taken not to over extend the neck, especially in the elderly as this may lead to subluxation or even fracture of a rigid cervical spine Fig.
The trachea and laryngeal cartilages should be palpated in order to establish where to make the incision. This should be a horizontal incision half way between the sternal notch and the cricoid cartilage, which can be felt just inferior to the cricothyroid ligament. This spot can be marked with a marking pen and the skin and beeper structures should be infiltrated with 0. This provides post-op pain relief and a dryer surgical field for the surgeon. The infiltration should be performed before the surgeon scrubs, as the adrenaline will then have adequate time to work Fig.
Check with the scrub nurse that an appropriate sized tube for the patient is available and that the cuff is patent on test inflation.
A non-fenestrated tube should always be used in the initial period to allow positive pressure ventilation. A second tube should be available as well as a selection of smaller, and larger tubes in case a problem arises. A catheter mount is also needed to enable the anaesthetic tube to be attached to the tracheostomy tube. Other essential items include a Travis self-retainer, a cricoid hook, a tracheal dilator and sutures Figs 3, 4.
The neck must be prepared with an appropriate non-alcoholic, anti-septic, surgical skin preparation and the neck is then draped. The patient should be draped using three small and one large sticky drape. A head drape should not be used, as it needs to be unwrapped in order to gain access to the ET tube and this cannot be done in a hurry, as it is cumbersome.
Place one small sticky drape on either side of the neck, up to the angle of the jaw making sure that the anaesthetic tube is not stuck to the drape. The third drape is applied horizontally just under the chin. In this way the ET tube is not caught up in the drapes and the anaesthetist can get to it very easily Figs 5, 6. The incision should be at least 6 cm long in the adult and should extend to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscles on either side.
More experienced surgeons may choose to make a smaller incision but the wider the exposure, the easier the operation is to perform Fig.
The incision is made through the subcutaneous tissue and platysma, down to the deep cervical fascia. The anterior jugular veins will be encountered superficial to the deep cervical fascia on either side of the midline. If they are quite lateral, they do not need to be divided but can be retracted to the sides of the wound. Remember to use the full width of the skin incision as deeper layers are dissected, and note that the trachea is deeper than one imagines.
A self-retaining retractor can now be inserted and the dissection continued until the strap muscles are encountered. These should be separated in the midline.PFK: What fish has eluded you the most to either keep or breed? The trachea and laryngeal cartilages should be palpated in order to establish where to make the incision. Remember to use the full width of the skin incision as deeper layers are dissected, and note that the trachea is deeper than one imagines.
Aqualisa Replacement Shower Cartridges - Trading Depot ; A range of Aqualisa replacement shower cartridges including, thermostatic cartridges, multipoint cartridges, high pressure cartridges and manual cartridges. After then it s 25 per day, or 45 for both days. What is here is upcycled, foraged, and put together with lashings of DIY.
The presence of the tube also causes a degree of disruption to the normal swallowing mechanism by splinting the larynx and preventing normal upward movement of the larynx on swallowing. The precise length of time that a patient can be safely intubated in this manner is still the subject of some debate, but there is a direct relationship between the duration of intubation, and the incidence and severity of laryngeal complications discussed in the previous chapters.
Timing of tracheostomy: What is the best approach? This movement will help them to hatch out.