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Indian Philosophy, Volume 1 book. Read 19 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This classic work is a general introduction to Indian p. Indian Philosophy, Volume I By S. Radhakrishnan · Indian Post Stamp Articles about Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Ċ, Read Indian Philosophy Volume 1 Second Edition: With an Introduction By S. Radhakrishnan was the second President of India, a position that he held from.

He also would have witnessed the positive contributions of the social programs undertaken by the Mission in the name of propagation of the Christian gospel.

His experiences at Tirupati brought him into contact with Lutheran Christian missionaries whose theological emphasis on personal religious experience may have suggested to him a common ground between Christianity and his own religious heritage.

In Vellore, the presence of a systematic social gospel was intimately bound up with the religion of those who sought to censure Radhakrishnan's cultural norms and religious worldview. Radhakrishnan was married to his wife of over 50 years, Sivakamuamma, in while living in Vellore.

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The couple went on to have six children: five daughters and a son. It is in this historical and hermeneutic contexts and with these experiences informing his worldview that Radhakrishnan encountered a resurgent Hinduism. Specifically, Radhakrishnan encountered the writings of Swami Vivekananda and V.

The Theosophical Society was also active in the South Arcot area at this time. The Theosophists not only applauded the ancient wisdom they claimed to have found in India, but were persistent advocates of a philosophical, spiritual, and scientific meeting of East and West.

Moreover, the Society's role in the Indian nationalist movement is evidenced by Annie Besant's involvement with the Indian National Congress. While Radhakrishnan does not speak of the Theosophists presence at this time, it is unlikely that he would have been unfamiliar with their views. What Vivekananda, Savarkar, and Theosophy did bring to Radhakrishnan was a sense of cultural self-confidence and self-reliance.

However, the affirmation Radhakrishnan received from this resurgence of Hinduism did not push Radhakrishnan to study philosophy nor to interpret his own religion. It was only after Radhakrishnan's experiences at Madras Christian College that he began to put down in writing his own understanding of Hinduism. At this time Radhakrishnan's academic sensibilities lay with the physical sciences, and before beginning his MA degree in his interest appears to have been law.

Two key influences on Radhakrishnan at Madras Christian College left an indelible stamp on Radhakrishnan's sensibilities. First, it was here that Radhakrishnan was trained in European philosophy. Radhakrishnan was also introduced to the philosophical methods and theological views of his MA supervisor and most influential non-Indian mentor, Professor A. Hogg was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary who was educated in the theology of Albrecht Ritschl and studied under the philosopher Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison.

As a student of Arthur Titius, himself a student of Albrecht Ritschl, Hogg adopted the Ritschlian distinction between religious value judgments, with their emphasis on subjective perception, and theoretical knowledge, which seeks to discover the nature of ultimate reality. Religious value judgments give knowledge which is different from, though not necessarily opposed to, theoretical knowledge.

For Ritschl, and subsequently for Titius and Hogg, this distinction led to the conclusion that doctrines and scriptures are records of personal insights and are therefore necessary for religious, and specifically Christian, faith.

This distinction left its mark on Radhakrishnan's philosophical and religious thinking and resonates throughout his writing. A second key factor shaping Radhakrishnan's sensibilities during this time is that it was at Madras Christian College that Radhakrishnan encountered intense religious polemic in an academic setting. Radhakrishnan later recalled: "The challenge of Christian critics impelled me to make a study of Hinduism and find out what is living and what is dead in it I prepared a thesis on the Ethics of the Vedanta, which was intended to be a reply to the charge that the Vedanta system had no room for ethics" MST Early Teaching and Writing Upon the completion of his MA degree in , Radhakrishnan found himself at both a financial and professional crossroads.

His obligations to his family precluded him from applying for a scholarship to study in Britain and he struggled without success to find work in Madras. The following year, with the assistance of William Skinner at Madras Christian College, Radhakrishnan was able to secure what was intended to be a temporary teaching position at Presidency College in Madras.

At Presidency College, Radhakrishnan lectured on a variety of topics in psychology as well as in European philosophy. As a junior Assistant Professor, logic, epistemology and ethical theory were his stock areas of instruction. At the College, Radhakrishnan also learned Sanskrit. During these years, Radhakrishnan was anxious to have his work published, not only by Indian presses but also in European journals.

The War, Tagore, and Mysore By , Radhakrishnan's reputation as a scholar was beginning to grow. However, the security of a permanent academic post in Madras eluded him. For three months in he was posted to Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, and in he was transferred yet again, this time to Rajahmundry. Only after spending a year in Rajahmundry did Radhakrishnan find some degree of professional security upon his acceptance of a position in philosophy at Mysore University. This hiatus in his occupational angst would be short lived.

His most prestigious Indian academic appointment to the George V Chair in Philosophy at Calcutta University in February of would take him out of South India for the first time only two and a half years later.

Between and , Radhakrishnan continued to publish. Throughout these articles, Radhakrishnan took it upon himself to refine and expand upon his interpretation of Hinduism. There is a strong polemical tenor to many of these articles.

Radhakrishnan was no longer content simply to define and defend Vedanta. Instead, he sought to confront directly not only Vedanta's Western competitors, but what he saw as the Western philosophical enterprise and the Western ethos in general. Radhakrishnan's polemical sensibilities during these years were heightened in no small part by the political turmoil both on the Indian as well as on the world stage.

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Radhakrishnan's articles and books during this period reflect his desire to offer a sustainable philosophical response to the unfolding discontent he encountered. World War One and its aftermath, and in particular the events in Amritsar in the spring of , further exacerbated Radhakrishnan's patience with what he saw as an irrational, dogmatic, and despotic West. A more positive factor in Radhakrishnan's life during these years was his reading of Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali poet.

Radhakrishnan joined the rest of the English-speaking world in in reading Tagore's translated works. Though the two had never met at this time, Tagore would become perhaps Radhakrishnan's most influential Indian mentor.

Tagore's poetry and prose resonated with Radhakrishnan. He appreciated Tagore's emphasis on aesthetics as well as his appeal to intuition. From on, both of these notions -- aesthetics and intuition -- begin to find their place in Radhakrishnan's own interpretations of experience, the epistemological category for his philosophical and religious proclivities.

Over the next five decades, Radhakrishnan would repeatedly appeal to Tagore's writing to support his own philosophical ideals.

As an honored, though hesitant, heir to Brajendranath Seal, Radhakrishnan's appointment to the chair was not without its dissenters who sought a fellow Bengali for the position. In Calcutta, Radhakrishnan was for the first time out of his South Indian element -- geographically, culturally, and linguistically. However, the isolation Radhakrishnan experienced during his early years in Calcutta allowed him to work on his two volume Indian Philosophy, the first of which he began while in Mysore and published in and the second followed four years later.

Throughout the s, Radhakrishnan's reputation as a scholar continued to grow both in India and abroad. The later of these two Views is Radhakrishnan's most sustained, non-commentarial work.

An Idealist View of Life is frequently seen as Radhakrishnan's mature work and has undoubtedly received the bulk of scholarly attention on Radhakrishnan.

While Radhakrishnan enjoyed a growing scholarly repute, he was also confronted in Calcutta with growing conflict and confrontation. The ambiguity of the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms with their olive branch for "responsible government" further fragmented an already divided Congress. But the racial paternalism of the Simon Commission prompted a resurgence of nationalist sentiment.

While Indian solidarity and protest received international attention, due in no small part to the media coverage of Gandhi's Salt March, such national unity was readily shaken.

Indian political consensus, much less swaraj, proved elusive. Communal division and power struggles on the part of Indians and a renewed conservatism in Britain crippled the London Round Table Conferences of the early s, reinforcing and perpetuating an already highly fragmented and politically volatile India. In his mind, he had identified the "religious" problem, reviewed the alternatives, and posited a solution.

An unreflective dogmatism could not be remedied by escaping from "experiential religion" which is the true basis of all religions. Rather, a recognition of the creative potency of integral experience tempered by a critical scientific attitude was, Radhakrishnan believed, the only viable corrective to dogmatic claims of exclusivity founded on external, second-hand authority.

Moreover, while Hinduism Advaita Vedanta as he defined it best exemplified his position, Radhakrishnan claimed that the genuine philosophical, theological, and literary traditions in India and the West supported his position. The s and s Radhakrishnan was knighted in , the same year he took up his administrative post as Vice Chancellor at the newly founded, though scarcely constructed, Andhra University at Waltair.

Sir Radhakrishnan served there for five years as Vice Chancellor, when, in , not only did the university in Calcutta affirm his position in perpetuity but Oxford University appointed him to the H. Spalding Chair of Eastern Religions and Ethics. In late , Radhakrishnan took up his second Vice Chancellorship at Benares Hindu University BHU , and served there during the course of the second world war until mid-January , two weeks before Gandhi's assassination in New Delhi. The Commission's Report assessed the state of university education and made recommendations for its improvement in the newly independent India.

Though co-authored by others, Radhakrishnan's hand is felt especially in the chapters on The Aims of University Education and Religious Education.

The growing communalism Radhakrishnan had witnessed in the s was further intensified with the ideological flowering of the Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Bhai Parmanand and his heir V. Likewise, Muhammad Iqbal's poetic vision and call for Muslim self-assertion furnished Muhammad Jinnah with an ideological template in which to lay claim to an independent Pakistan.

This claim was given recognition at the Round Table Conferences in London early that decade. If the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms had in the s served to fracture already fragile political alliances, its progeny as the Government of India Act with its promise for greater self-government further crowded the political stage and divided those groups struggling for their share of power.

During these years, the spectrum of nationalist vision was as broad as Indian solidarity was elusive. The issues of education and nationalism come together for Radhakrishnan during this period. For Radhakrishnan, a university education which quickened the development of the whole individual was the only responsible and practical means to the creation of Indian solidarity and clarity of national vision.

Throughout the s and s, Radhakrishnan expressed his vision of an autonomous India. He envisioned an India built and guided by those who were truly educated, by those who had a personal vision of and commitment to raising Indian self-consciousness. Post-Independence: Vice-presidency and Presidency The years following Indian independence mark Radhakrishnan's increasing involvement in Indian political as well as in international affairs.

The closing years of the s were busy ones. Radhakrishnan also served for the two years immediately following India's independence as a member of the Indian Constituent Assembly. The opportunity for Radhakrishnan to put into practice his own philosophical-political ideals came with his election to the Raja Sabha, in which he served as India's Vice-President and later as President Radhakrishnan saw during his terms in office an increasing need for world unity and universal fellowship.

Indian Philosophy, Vol. 1

The urgency of this need was pressed home to Radhakrishnan by what he saw as the unfolding crises throughout the world. At the time of his taking up the office of Vice-President, the Korean war was already in full swing.

Political tensions with China in the early s followed by the hostilities between India and Pakistan dominated Radhakrishnan's presidency. Moreover, the Cold War divided East and West leaving each side suspicious of the other and on the defensive. Radhakrishnan challenged what he saw as the divisive potential and dominating character of self-professed international organizations such as the League of Nations.

Instead, he called for the promotion of a creative internationalism based on the spiritual foundations of integral experience. Only then could understanding and tolerance between peoples and between nations be promoted. Radhakrishnan retired from public life in He spent the last eight years of his life at the home he built in Mylapore, Madras.

Radhakrishnan died on April 17, Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan a. Metaphysics Radhakrishnan located his metaphysics within the Advaita non-dual Vedanta tradition sampradaya. As an Advaitin, Radhakrishnan embraced a metaphysical idealism. Brahman is the source of the world and its manifestations, but these modes do not affect the integrity of Brahman.

Epistemology: Intuition and the Varieties of Experience This section deals with Radhakrishnan's understanding of intuition and his interpretations of experience. It begins with a general survey of the variety of terms as well as the characteristics Radhakrishnan associates with intuition. It then details with how Radhakrishnan understands specific occurrences of intuition in relation to other forms of experience -- cognitive, psychic, aesthetic, ethical, and religious.

Intuition Radhakrishnan associates a vast constellation of terms with intuition. At its best, intuition is an "integral experience". Radhakrishnan uses the term "integral" in at least three ways. First, intuition is integral in the sense that it coordinates and synthesizes all other experiences.

It integrates all other experiences into a more unified whole. Second, intuition is integral as it forms the basis of all other experiences. In other words, Radhakrishnan holds that all experiences are at bottom intuitional.

Third, intuition is integral in the sense that the results of the experience are integrated into the life of the individual. For Radhakrishnan, intuition finds expression in the world of action and social relations. But it is the creative potency of intuition, designated by Radhakrishnan's reference to the "creative center" of the individual IVL , "creative intuition" IVL , "creative spirit" IVL , and "creative energy" IVL , that is the lynchpin for Radhakrishnan's understanding of intuition.

As Radhakrishnan understands it, all progress is the result of the creative potency of intuition. For Radhakrishnan, intuition is a distinct form of experience. Intuition is of a self-certifying character svatassiddha. It is sufficient and complete.

Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Intuition entails pure comprehension, entire significance, complete validity IVL It is both truth-filled and truth-bearing IVL Intuition is its own cause and its own explanation IVL It is sovereign IVL Intuition is a positive feeling of calm and confidence, joy and strength IVL Intuition is profoundly satisfying IVL It is peace, power and joy IVL Intuition is the ultimate form of experience for Radhakrishnan. It is ultimate in the sense that intuition constitutes the fullest and therefore the most authentic realization of the Real Brahman.

The ultimacy of intuition is also accounted for by Radhakrishnan in that it is the ground of all other forms of experience. Intuition is a self-revelation of the divine. Intuitive experience is immediate. Immediacy does not imply in Radhakrishnan's mind an "absence of psychological mediation, but only non-mediation by conscious thought" IVL Intuition operates on a supra-conscious level, unmediated as it is by conscious thought.

Even so, Radhakrishnan holds that there is "no such thing as pure experience, raw and undigested. It is always mixed up with layers of interpretation" IVL One might object here that Radhakrishnan has conflated the experience itself with its subsequent interpretation and expression. However, Radhakrishnan's comment is an attempt to deny the Hegelian interpretation of Hinduism's "contentless" experience, affirming instead that intuition is the plenitude of experience.

Finally, intuition, according to Radhakrishnan, is ineffable.

It escapes the limits of language and logic, and there is "no conception by which we can define it" IVL In such experiences "[t]hought and reality coalesce and a creative merging of subject and object results" IVL While the experience itself transcends expression, it also provokes it IVL The provocation of expression is, for Radhakrishnan, testimony to the creative impulse of intuition.

All creativity and indeed all progress in the various spheres of life is the inevitable result of intuition. For Radhakrishnan all of these forms of experience contribute, in varying degrees, to a knowledge of the real Brahman , and as such have their basis in intuition. Sense Experience Of the cognitive forms of knowledge, Radhakrishnan suggests that sensory knowledge is in one respect closest to intuition, for it is in the act of sensing that one is in "direct contact" with the object.

Sense experience "helps us to know the outer characters of the external world. By means of it we acquire an acquaintance with the sensible qualities of the objects" IVL In this sense, sense perception may be considered intuitive, though Radhakrishnan does not explicitly describe it as such.

Discursive Reasoning Discursive reasoning, and the logical knowledge it produces, is subsequent to sensory experience perception. Unlike sense perception which Radhakrishnan claims to be closer to direct knowledge, logical knowledge "is indirect and symbolic in its character. It helps us to handle and control the object and its workings" IVL There is a paradoxical element here. Radhakrishnan seems to be suggesting that the direct proximity to an external object one encounters in sense perception is compromised when the perception is interpreted and subsequently incorporated into a more systematic, though presumably higher, form of knowledge through discursive reasoning.

For Radhakrishnan, discursive reasoning and the logical systems they construct possess an element of intuition. The methodical, mechanical working through of logical problems and the reworking of rational systems cannot be divorced from what Radhakrishnan might call an "intuitive hunch" that such a course of action will bear positive results; "In any concrete act of thinking the mind's active experience is both intuitive and intellectual" IVL Intuitive Apprehension Radhakrishnan argues against what he sees as the prevalent Western temptation to reduce the intuitive to the logical.

While logic deals with facts already known, intuition goes beyond logic to reveal previously unseen connections between facts. We forget that we invent by intuition though we prove by logic" IVL Intuition not only clarifies the relations between facts and seemingly discordant systems, but lends itself to the discovery of new knowledge which then becomes an appropriate subject of philosophical inquiry and logical analysis.

Claiming to take his cue from his former adversary Henri Bergson, Radhakrishnan offers three explanations to account for the tendency to overlook the presence of intuition in discursive reasoning.

First, Radhakrishnan claims, intuition presupposes a rational knowledge of facts. The successful practice of intuition requires previous study and assimilation of a multitude of facts and laws. We may take it that great intuitions arise out of a matrix of rationality" IVL Second, the intuitive element is often obscured in discursive reasoning because facts known prior to the intuition are retained, though they are synthesized, and perhaps reinterpreted, in light of the intuitive insight.

Finally, intuition in discursive reasoning is often overlooked, disguised as it is in the language of logic. In short, the intuitive is mistaken for the logical. Perhaps what Radhakrishnan means is that logic is the only valid means by which we are able to organize and systematize empirical facts.

Regardless, according to Radhakrishnan, the presentation of facts in logical form contributes to "a confusion between discovery and proof" IVL Conversely, Radhakrishnan offers a positive argument for the place of intuition in discursive reasoning. A purely mechanical account of discursive reasoning ignores the inherently creative and dynamic dimension of intuitive insight. In Radhakrishnan's view the mechanical application of logic alone is creatively empty IVL However, Radhakrishnan holds that the "creative insight is not the final link in a chain of reasoning.

If it were that, it would not strike us as "inspired in its origin" IVL Intuition is not the end, but part of an ever-developing and ever-dynamic process of realization. There is, for Radhakrishnan, a continual system of "checks and balances" between intuition and the logical method of discursive reasoning.

Cognitive intuitions "are not substitutes for thought, they are challenges to intelligence. Mere intuitions are blind while intellectual work is empty. All processes are partly intuitive and partly intellectual.


There is no gulf between the two" IVL As early as his first volume of Indian Philosophy , Radhakrishnan affirms the validity of what he identifies as "psychic phenomena". Radhakrishnan accounts for such experiences in terms of a highly developed sensitivity to intuition. Such experiences are not "abnormal" according to Radhakrishnan, nor are they unscientific. Rather, they are the products of carefully controlled mental experiments. In the Indian past, "The psychic experiences, such as telepathy and clairvoyance, were considered to be neither abnormal nor miraculous.

They are not the products of diseased minds or inspiration from the gods, but powers which the human mind can exhibit under carefully ascertained conditions" IP1 Psychic intuitions are not askew with Radhakrishnan's understanding of the intellect. In fact, they are evidence of the remarkable heights to which the undeveloped, limited intellect is capable.

They are, for Radhakrishnan, accomplishments rather than failures of human consciousness. As highly developed powers of apprehension, psychic experiences are a state of consciousness "beyond the understanding of the normal, and the supernormal is traced to the supernatural" IVL Moreover, in what Radhakrishnan might recognize as an "intuitive hunch" in the articulation of a new scientific hypothesis, psychic premonitions, as partial or momentary as they may be, lend themselves to the "psychic hypothesis" that the universal spirit is inherent in the nature of all things IVL For Radhakrishnan, psychic intuitions are suprasensory: "We can see objects without the medium of the senses and discern relations spontaneously without building them up laboriously.

Probably Radhakrishnan thought that attack was the best defence! Part 3 of the newspaper report on the issue Prof.

He did his PhD from the CU in He went on to become a versatile writer of Philosophy, Psychology, etc. Kegan Paul of London. Sinha being the most original philosopher of Hinduism and Indian philosophy, psychology, etc.

Jadunath Sinha went into religion in the latter part of his life.

Dr S Radhakrishnan There was lot of pressure on Prof. Jadunath Sinha to settle the case out of court. All the so-called Bengali senior Professors who sympathized with Prof.

Jadunath Sinha and were convinced of the plagiarism, refused to stand witness for him in the Court. Jadunath Sinha was also short of money. Radhakrishnan had lot of clout and was clever enough to manipulate, manage and obtain the help of his friends, especially that of Dr.

Shyamaprasad Mukherjee, son of Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee. So, his son Dr. Shyamaprasad Mukherjee, who was also a close friend of Dr. Radhakrishnan and was then the Vice Chancellor of the Calcutta University, wanted to hush up the matter.

Ramananda Chattopadhyay At last Prof. Jadunath Sinha succumbed to all these pressures and had to agree for settlement outside court. And the two suits were settled before the Acting Chief Justice through a Decree, probably in the first week of May Terms of settlement were not disclosed. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long.

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Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori.Lists with This Book. The Individual in East and West. Free eBook Add to My Books. The opportunity for Radhakrishnan to put into practice his own philosophical-political ideals came with his election to the Raja Sabha, in which he served as India's Vice-President and later as President In a sense, Radhakrishnan "Hinduizes" all religions.

This proves the fact that Aryans believed that sun didn't disappear during the night. Good coverage of Indian philosophy from Vedic times, through the Upanishads, and up through Buddhism and the Bhagavad-Gita. How to define knowledge and wisdom? London: Arthur Probstain,