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Evidence is accumulating that plant resistances to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stresses Suzuki et al. For example, the Mimediated nematode resistance was compromised under heat stress Marques de Carvalho et al.
The intriguing question is whether these WRKYs are involved in the instability of the Mimediated resistance under heat stress, or, more generally, do WRKYs play a role in the in stability of plant R genes-mediated resistance associated with different molecular mechanisms Kissoudis et al. A WKRY gene that confers resistance or tolerance to multiple stresses would be highly useful for breeding.
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However, WRKY genes can also have opposite effects on abiotic and biotic stress tolerance since complex interactions among signaling networks can lead to both synergistic and antagonistic effects on regulation of plant responses to different stresses Phukan et al. For example, OsWRKY45 that positively mediates broad-spectrum disease resistance while inhibiting adaptation to abiotic stresses Qiu and Yu, ; Tao et al.
Similarly, other transcription factors have also been shown to play an antagonistic role in modulating responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, such as tomato stress-responsive factor TSRF1 Zhang et al. The regulation of plant responses to multiple stresses relies on tightly regulated and highly dynamic regulatory networks where WRKYs can function as activators or repressors Eulgem and Somssich, ; Bakshi and Oelmuller, ; Phukan et al. These three WRKYs form both homomeric and heteromeric complexes to modulate downstream target genes and cross-regulate each other, leading to a variety of responses to stresses and during development.
It can be difficult to make use of such WRKY-clusters for crop improvement since multiple responses can lead to unwanted traits along with beneficial effects Phukan et al. Further studies are needed to verify whether they also function in clusters and to identify other SlWRKY clusters. In this review, we tried to infer functions of unstudied SlWRKY genes via their homologs in other plant species.
However, it should be stressed that slight changes in the DNA-binding domain may have an important effect on the binding specificity, and sequence homologs may be highly similar yet have different functions Tao et al. Identification of motifs associated with functions of tomato WRKYs will contribute to the understanding of their regulatory networks under combined stresses. Author Contributions YB designed the outline of the manuscript.
RV and CvdL contributed to revisions of the manuscript.
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Company Media Kit Contact Scoop. Like all sandbox games, some new players.Comparing the expression profiles of B. A Growth phenotypes of WT, wrky33, nced3 nced5, and wrky33 nced3 nced5 Arabidopsis plants at 4 weeks under short day conditions.
B Relative binding-peak distribution across genomic regions. Portugiesisch; Russisch; Schwedisch; u. It is worthwhile to note that WRKYs have been studied for their responses to a single stress at the time.
The publisher, editors and Exemplary professional and technical reference books. Many tomato WRKYs function as positive regulators of plant responses to biotic stresses. In contrast, the nac nac double mutant showed increased resistance to B. How to curate as a team?
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