ASTM F is a standard practice for specifying an equivalent 3-Second Duration design Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. DoD Security Engineering Facilities Design Manual (FOUO). © JEI Design Load = Equivalent 3 second design load ASTM F ▫ Info Required – . This file was downloaded from: .. ASTM F 09 recommends using either structural silicone sealant or adhesive glazing.

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PDF | This paper reviews current design standards and test methods for blast- resistant glazing design and compares a typical design outcome with Download full-text PDF .. design guidelines in ASTM F (ASTM a) have been. Download full-text PDF . Besides these two standards, ASTM F (in ASTM F specifies an equivalent 3-sec design load with the. Sign In · View Account▹ · Home; ASTM F standard by ASTM International, 08/10/ PDF;; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart.

Handle fence components to protect finish coating from any scuffs, abrasion or other damage during unloading and installation. Excessive damage to factory applied coatings will be cause for rejection. Fencing System Subject to the performance and design requirement specified herein, fence and gates shall be manufactured from the following materials: 1.

“SECURITE” Fence System Specifications

Fence Framework: a. Round: 1 All round material for post and rails up to and including 5 inch O. Panels: a. Fittings and Fasteners: a. All brackets shall be finished to match fence finish and color. If necessary, truss rods or cables to be used to prevent gate sag and allow for future adjustment.

Hinge pins shall be non-removable. Gate keeper shall consist of mechanical device for securing free end of gate when in full open position. Powder coated finish shall meet or exceed the following performance criteria. Applicable requirements to validate the coating process. Minimum Performance Requirement - resistance to impact not less than in. Chemical Resistance a. After a 15 minute exposure, wash off with running tap water.

Mortar Resistance 24 hour pat test 1 Procedure: Prepare mortar by mixing 75g There shall be no loss of film adhesion or visual change in the appearance when examined by the unaided eye.

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Note: A slight staining or discoloration may be apparent on orange, yellow or metallic coatings. This should be discussed with the specifying source prior to selection of color. Remove and wipe the specimens dry.

Place the tape longitudinally along the entire length of the test specimens. If blisters are visible, then the blistered are must be taped and rated. No blistering and no significant visual change in the appearance when examined by the unaided eye.

After exposure, remove specimens and wipe dry. Immediately apply tape Permacel 99 or equal over scribed are by pressing down firmly against the coating. Sharply pull the tape off at a right angle to the surface being tested.

Footing sizes shall be determined by Engineer. Verify areas to receive fencing. Coordinate fence installation with work of other sections listed in these specifications. Examine conditions under which fencing and gates are to be installed. Notify Contractor of unsatisfactory conditions. Do not proceed with work until conditions are satisfactory to the installer.

Blast resistant glazing should therefore be 35 used in buildings to minimize, if not eliminate the hazard from potential terrorist attacks.

It has a superior blast resistance compared to monolithic glass and 38 hence mostly used in blast resistant glazing. The major advantage of LG is that even if the 39 glass cracks, the interlayer holds the glass fragments instead of forming free flying shards. Use of 42 annealed or heat strengthened glass types in LG, instead of fully tempered glass, has hence 43 been recommended Norville and Conrath Polyvinyl butyral PVB is commonly used 44 as the interlayer material in LG glass, but some stiffer interlayer materials such as ionoplast is 45 also used in practice Ledbetter et al.

LG panels are fixed to the window frames using 46 structural sealant joints where silicone and rubber are the common sealant materials.

Shortcomings 53 and limitations in those design standards and test methods are briefly discussed. This paper extends 56 their previous research work to apply their modeling techniques to analyze LG panels under 57 blast loads. The comprehensive information provided through such analysis will not only 58 enhance the understanding on the blast response of LG panels, but also facilitate their design. Results from FE analysis are used to examine 61 the failure of glass, interlayer and sealant joints.

Energy absorption of different components is studied and the importance of 64 the interlayer properties is highlighted, as they are not accounted for in the current design 65 standards.

In practice, engineers do blast testing to check their designs that they had carried 66 out according to design standards. Modeling techniques presented in this paper could be used 67 to complement and supplement existing design standards for the design of LG panels, where 68 applicable, and also as a solution when they are not applicable, reducing costs, risks and 69 environmental pollution involved with blast testing.

Existing design standards and their 74 limitations are reviewed below.

This standard recommends 78 using either annealed or heat strengthened glass types for the glass panes than using fully 79 tempered glass which has shown a poor post-blast performance during blast testing. For a given 82 charge weight and standoff distance, the 3-second duration equivalent design load should be 83 selected from the chart shown in Fig.

This chart was 84 developed using the results from a number of blast tests conducted on LG panels for 85 hemispherical charge weights at ground level. The width bite of the 90 structural silicone sealant bed should be at least equal to or greater than 10 mm or the 91 nominal thickness of the glass panes, while less than twice the nominal thickness of glass 92 panes to which it adheres.

The minimum thickness of the structural silicone sealant bed 93 should be 5 mm. The glazing tape should be within two to four times the thickness of the 94 glass pane.

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Framing system supporting the glazing should be attached mechanically 98 to the structural framing system using fasteners that should be designed to resist uniform load 99 acting on the glazing.

The design load of the fasteners should be two times the magnitude of the load resistance of the glazing if the maximum air blast pressure is greater than one half the magnitude of the load resistance of glazing. On the other hand, the fasteners should be designed to a load equal to the load resistance of the glazing if the maximum air blast pressure is less than one half the magnitude of the load resistance of glazing. When a LG panel fails under a minimal hazard, it is expected to fracture but it should remain in the frame without any failure at the sealant joints and the supportive frame.

The chart shown in Fig. This standard therefore does not account the effects due to the variations of the thickness of the interlayer and also the effects of different interlayer materials with varied material properties for the blast response of LG panels. A conservative design approach based on static analysis is used to design window frames, fasteners and other supporting elements. The former describes an approach of designing blast resistant windows basically with LG, while the later provides a design approach with monolithic fully tempered glass.

UFC DoD defines different levels of protections known as below at standard, very low, low, medium and high, which correspond to high hazard, low hazard, very low hazard, minimal hazard and no hazard respectively according glazing hazard ratings defined in ASTM F ASTM b.

Conventional construction standoff distance implies the minimum standoff distance required by a DOD building to achieve either very low or low level of protections without any measures for blast resistance.

Buildings must at least satisfy the minimum standoff distance requirement and those that do not meet 6 conventional construction standoff distances or that required a higher level of protection should be designed for the potential blast threat at the available standoff distance.

Minimum interlayer thickness should be 0. Design should be carried out using 1 for both load and strength reduction factors for all methods of analysis referenced in UFC DoD The blast load is treated as a triangular load and a simplified single degree of freedom SDOF model is used to simulate the dynamic response of the glass panels. The glass panels are analyzed based on large deflection plate theory since the panel deflections are large compared to thickness of the panel.

The maximum allowable principal tensile stress of glazing is used as psi Mpa in the standard. Design 7 deflection is the center deflection which corresponds to maximum principal tensile stress at any point in the glass panel.

In addition to charts, set of formulae is given in the standard to design blast resistant glazing. Framing members should be designed for the load transferred from the glass panel and static design blast load applied to all exposed members. This standard uses a simplified SDOF analysis method to study the blast response of glazed panels by accounting for the positive phase of the blast load only. The design charts developed in this standard are applicable for monolithic fully tempered glass only.

The maximum length and width of the glass panels that could be designed with UFC DOD are limited to about 3 and 1.

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However, it could be noted that the generalized analyse and design method given in this standard can be applied for the design of LG or any glazing type with different sizes, if the corresponding load-resistance curve is determined from an analytical or experimental study. Pre-crack resistance function is derived based on large deflection plate theory by considering the dynamic breaking strength of glass.

The dynamic breaking strengths used in the design are 80 MPa for annealed glass and MPa for fully tempered glass. The post-crack resistance function is derived considering the membrane action of PVB interlayer, but neglecting the stiffness of cracked glass panes.

Based on the extensive blast tests conducted for common window sizes used in the UK about 1. Each contour line in the diagram connects P-I pairs giving same deflection and stress, and those are called iso-damage lines. The lower contour line represents the P-I pairs causing initial crack of the glass pane while the upper contour line represents P-I pairs causing tearing of the PVB interlayer.

Known blast threats can be marked on the P-I diagram of a selected LG panel to estimate its performance under the blast threat.

The panel edges should be securely held in robust frames by using structural silicone sealant with a width bite of about 35 mm. Support reactions can be obtained based on equivalent SDOF factors for two-way spanning simply supported panes with a uniform load. It is restricted to military use giving limited access to the external users.

The authors could not find a copy of this document and hence limited information is given in the paper. UK Glazing Hazard Guide is limited to a few window sizes used in the UK and therefore has a limited application in designing blast resistant glazing in real buildings. This report describes two design approaches known as static and dynamic approach that could be used to design single glazing units or insulated glazing units fabricated with LG to blast loads. This approach was described earlier in the paper and is also described in detail in PDC-TR with some worked examples.

The authors prefer the use of FE codes when analyzing and designing glazing under blast loads and their approach is described later. However, PDC-TR provides some useful information on computer programs and their applications to design window systems under blast loads.

These programs are based on SDOF analysis where their approach is an iterative process of selecting initial glazing or member size and then repeating the analysis until the window system is found to have an acceptable response. One of the major limitations is that the design outcome will be much conservative as 10 it is based on simplified SDOF analysis.

On the other hand, a comprehensive knowledge and an understanding about the computer program are required to achieve feasible and safe design. However, these programs generate the output results in numbers unlike in the FE codes where it is possible to observe the predicted response and the failure pattern.

These test methods can be classified into two types as arena air blast test and shock tube test. An arena air blast test is carried out in an open environment and is expensive compared to the shock tube test, but it tests several test panels simultaneously.

A shock tube test is carried out in a closed tube and is not a realistic test, but is capable of reproducing the same shock repeatedly. The hazard rating of a glazing system is determined based on the severity of fragments generated during the blast testing. The severity of fragments is determined by considering the number, size and location of fragments observed after the test.

A fragment is defined as any particle having a united dimension of 2.

Testing can be conducted using either arena air blast or shock tube test types from which the blast load is obtained. This standard requires at least three test specimens representative of a glazing or glazing system to be tested at a given blast load and an additional specimen should be used for pre-test measurements. Pressure transducers are used to record the blast pressure on the test panel during the testing. ISO ISO a covers broad range of blast parameters incorporating 7 standard blasts simulating vehicle bombs and 7 standard blasts simulating smaller hand-carried satchel bombs.

On the other hand, ISO ISO b applies for blast waves generated in shock tube facility, simulating the reflected pressures and impulses generated from high-explosive detonations of approximately kg TNT at standoff distances from about m. However, non-standard test specimens could only be tested, but not classified according to these standards. They provide 6 hazard ratings: A-F no break, no hazard, minimum hazard, very 12 low hazard, low hazard and high hazard based upon the severity of fragments and hazard effects, evidenced by distribution of fragments and damage to the witness panel occurred during the blast test.

Most of the universities and government organizations do not have sufficient funds and space to conduct blast testing.

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As described above, all these standards require at least three specimens to be tested under a given blast load, as repetitive testing is required to accurately predict the behavior and the failure of a glazed panel under a blast load. On the other hand, these test methods are valid for small test specimens with standard dimensions and large glazed panels used in most buildings could not be classified according to the above standards.As building facades continue to incorporate larger areas of advanced glazing elements, the probability of human injuries or fatalities from glazing debris increases.

LG panels are fixed to the window frames using 46 structural sealant joints where silicone and rubber are the common sealant materials. The installation commander will obtain prior approval consistent with Service or Agency guidance if any new construction project, renovation project, or leased facility to which these standards apply will not meet any one or more of these standards.

The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed below. The location, size, and nature of terrorist threats are unpredictable. The master planning implications of these standards are not intended to be resolved overnight.